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Essential Language Features with Examples

Reading Time: 16 minutes

Essential Language Features with Examples

Language Features Definition

Language is one of the effective communication tools and is also an essential part of our lives. Each language has its own features. Usually, poets and writers who engage in creating literature work predominantly use language features and literary devices while writing. If you have deep knowledge about the language features, then you can also understand the perspectives of an author or writer by doing a language analysis of their works.

In general, language features aid us to present our ideas in different forms from being formal to poetic. Not just poems or literature, with the help of language features and structural techniques, you can create all types of reports, documents, academic papers and letters of both formal and informal use.

Do you know about the various language features? If not, you are in the right place. Here, in this post, we will let you know the different types of languages features and the language techniques the writers used to convey their ideas.

List of Language Features

The language features are commonly grouped and listed as

  • Language Techniques
  • Structural techniques
  • Literary Devices

Language Techniques

The language techniques are nothing but the words and phrases that a writer uses in his content or a story to emphasize the topic or a theme. The language elements can be used anywhere in your content to help the readers understand your write-up in a better way.

You can play smartly with your content if you have a deep understanding of the language techniques and elements. In English, there are many language techniques available. With the language techniques, you can present your content in any style and format.

Discussed below are some of the common verbal language techniques.

Noun

It is a word used for identifying a person, place or thing. The noun is of different types such as common noun, proper noun, abstract noun and collective noun.

The Common Noun refers to people or things.

Eg: Man, Woman, Boy, Girl.

A Proper Noun is a name that identifies a specific noun.

Eg: Africa, Jenifer, Monday.

The Abstract Noun is a type of noun that refers to qualities, ideas and conditions that have no physical reality or cannot be touched or seen.

Eg: Friendship, Happiness.

The group of things or people is referred to as Collective Nouns.

Eg: Audience, Jury, Players.

Pronoun

It is a word that is used in place of a noun or a noun phrase.I, me, he, she, herself, you, it, that, they, each, few, many, who, whoever, whose, someone, everybody, etc. are the commonly used pronouns. It is more often used to connect with the readers.

Eg: I prefer it.

Verb

It is a word used to describe action. You can use a verb in different tenses depending on when the action is done.

Eg: He walked to the auditorium. Here, walked is a verb.

Imperative

They are verb used for giving warnings, commands, orders or instructions.It can be positive or negative.

Eg: Don’t go there!

Come here!

Adjective

It is a word that describes the characteristics of a noun.

Eg: She is Sad. Here the word sad is the adjective which explains the emotion of a girl.

The adjectives are commonly classified as 12 types. The types of adjectives include

Comparative adjective:

It is used to compare two different things or people. Some common comparative adjectives include taller, faster, more expensive, etc.

Eg: Jack is shorter than Robert.

Superlative adjective:

It is used to compare more than two things or people by mentioning which one is the most supreme. Loudest, least valuable, fastest, etc. are a few examples of superlative adjectives.

Eg: Willium is the smartest member of our team.

Predicate adjective:

This type of adjective occurs in the predicate of a sentence as a subject complement. It follows linking verbs in clauses and sentences.

Eg: The pizza is delicious.

Compound adjective:

It is formed from multiple words that are connected by a hyphen. Some examples of compound adjectives are cross-eyed, happy-go-lucky, etc.

Eg: He is tired of her never-ending complaints

Possessive adjective:

This type of adjective is used to express ownership or possession. Some commonly used possessive adjectives include his, her, their, our, your, their and whose.

Eg: My favorite food is Biryani.

Demonstrative adjective:

It is used to describe relative positions in time and space. This, that, those and these are the frequently used demonstrative adjectives.

Eg: This clock is costlier than that one.

Proper adjective:

This type of adjective is formed from proper nouns. Generally, proper adjectives are used to say something that is related to a specific person or place. Some examples of proper adjectives include Indian, Shakespeariean, etc.

Eg:I was reading an Indian Novel.

Participial adjective:

It is based on participles. i.e., the words that usually end in –ing or –ed. Some examples of participial adjectives are reading, impressed, bored.

Eg: I am impressed by your artistic skills.

Limiting adjective:

This type of adjective restricts a noun rather than describing its qualities. It overlaps with possessive adjectives and demonstrative adjectives. The limiting adjective examples include your, some and these.

Eg: I bought some chocolates at the shop.

Descriptive adjective:

It describes the qualities, traits or characteristics of a noun or a pronoun.

Eg: She is a friendly person.

Interrogative adjective:

This type of adjective is used to ask questions. Some frequently used interrogative adjectives are what, whose and which.

Eg: What is your favorite movie?

Distributive adjective:

It is used to refer to members of a group individually. The words that are distributive adjectives are every, each, neither and either.

Eg: Every player in the team performed well.

Adverb

It is another important language feature. An adverb is a word or a phrase that modifies the meaning of a verb, adjective or another adverb.

A verb, for example, ‘She sings beautifully.’

An adjective, for example, ‘He is truly fascinating.’

Another adverb, for example, ‘She strolls gradually.’

Many adverbs end in “-ly”.

Common examples of adverb include Financially, Abruptly,Willfully, Endlessly, Delightfully, Lightly,Quickly, Eternally, Firmly, Delicately, Sorrowfully,Wearily, Beautifully, and Truthfully.

Other examples of adverbs would be words that portray how something was done or how it was finished. These future words like: Uneasily, Weirdly, Cheerfully, Expertly, Wholeheartedly, Randomly, Brutally, Really, Briskly, Sloppily, and Wickedly.

Some adverb discloses to us that where the move has made a place. Here, There, Underground, Somewhere, Everywhere, In, Inside, Out, Upstairs, Outside, and Downstairs.

A few adverbs disclose to us that when the move has made place: Now, First, Last, Early, Yesterday, Tomorrow, Today, Later, Regularly, Often, Never, Monthly, Always, and Usually.

Some adverb discloses to us the degree of the activity: Very, Too, Almost, Also, Only, Enough, So, Quiet, Almost, and Rather.

Till now we have seen the common verbal language techniques with some examples. Next, let us move to another language feature which is structural techniques.

Structural Techniques

So, what is a structural technique? In every language, the structural highlights are important. They mainly focus on detailing the structure of the language. A language will lose its significance if it is not structured appropriately. Even a simple sentence without a legitimate structure will also be meaningless. On an easy note, a language structure can be defined as the order of ideas in a text.

For example, take a story. To make a story interesting, the events in the story should be structured properly, or else, the story will sound blunt. Not just a story, even from a single sentence to a novel, structural techniques should be employed to add value to the language.

In language, structure plays a vital role. Here are some of the common structural techniques you should be aware of.

Structural Techniques

Simple Sentence

A sentence that contains one clause with a subject and a verb is called a Simple Sentence. It is usually short and to the point. It is a popular technique used to attract readers easily.

Eg: The train was late.

Compound Sentence

A compound sentence is a sentence that contains two independent clauses that are joined with a conjunction. It is one of the important language structures that are used to connect two ideas.

Eg: I like tea and my sister likescoffee.

Complex Sentence

A complex sentence usually contains one or more subordinate clauses.

Eg: She returned her mobile after she noticed it was damaged.

Repetition

Repetition means using a word or a phrase more than once.

Eg: Hand in Hand

Punctuation

Punctuations are marks that are used to sort out the meanings of different texts. Its main purpose is to clarify the meanings of the text by separating words, phrases, clauses or linking. Some commonly used punctuation marks are period, comma, colon, semicolon, a hyphen, question mark, exclamation, apostrophe, brackets and quotation. Punctuation is a commonly used structural device while writing poems.

Eg: “No, sir, I didn’t inform them”.

Juxtaposition

Here, at least two thoughts, places, characters, and their activities are placed next to each other in a narrative or a sonnet for creating examinations and complexities.

Writers utilize the artistic procedure of juxtaposition to astonish their readers and inspire their advantage. Usually, they build up a correlation between two disparate things by setting them one next to the other. The examination adds striking quality to a given picture, controls the pacing of a sonnet or a narrative, and gives a logical association between two different hazy ideas.

Eg: Beggars can’t be choosers. Here ‘beg and choose’ are contrasting functions and this proverb implies that one cannot be both desperate and have any choice in the decision.

Anaphora

Anaphora means the repetition of a word or phrase at the beginning of successive clauses. Generally, the writers utilize Anaphora in writing or discourse. They purposely rehash the initial segment of the sentence to accomplish an artistic effect.

Anaphora adds conspicuousness to thoughts as well as adds mood to it and accordingly, makes it more agreeable to read and simpler to recollect. This strategy gets the reader’s consideration.

Eg: If my daughter moves to New York, I will move there too.

Listing

Listing is the way of writing a number of connected items one after the other to emphasize a particular quality. It is a popular structural device used when writing essays and research papers. To make the points familiar to the readers, the writer uses a listing.

Chronology

Arranging the events in an order of time is referred to as Chronology. In literature, the authors use Chronology to narrate the events in a story. Also, it is easy for the readers to understand the events when it is written in Chronology. The arrangement of events can be done in different styles. It can be linear, reverse and non-linear.

Links

The link is also one of the structural techniques used to connect the start and the end of a text while narrating. For a natural narration, the authors use links.

Till now, we have talked about the important language and structural techniques

Emotive Language

A language that is proposed to make an enthusiastic reaction is known as Emotive Language. Writers generally use this to trigger the emotions of the readers. When a sentence is said in a normal way, it won’t create any impact in the minds of the readers. If an emotional value is added to that same sentence, then it will create a different reaction in the minds of the readers.

For example:

“Put that plastic bottle in the recycle bin”

This sentence sounds commanding.

“You should recycle the plastics because it saves the planet”.

Here, this sentence suggests action along with an emotional response.

The Emotive language when used effectively creates a relevant effect on the audience. But remember, you should not overuse emotive language. Use this language only when there is a need.

By now, you would have gained knowledge about the language and structural techniques. In the next section, let us have a deep look at the literary devices.

Literary Devices

The literary devices are used by poets and literary writers to convey their ideas or messages. If you have knowledge about the literary device, then you can easily understand the author’s point of view.

The Literary Devices can be classified as literary techniques and literary elements.

Literary Techniques

The literary techniques are the figurative language used by writers for narration. It is nothing but the figures of speech that generally the authors or writers who are involved in creating poems or any other form of literary works use.

Here are some common literary techniques the writers use predominantly.

Literary Techniques

Allusion

Basically, it is an indirect reference to an individual, place, thing, or thought of historical, social, abstract, or political significance. Furthermore, allusion doesn’t depict in detail the individual or thing to which it alludes. Also, it is only a passing remark. In allusion, the writer anticipates that the reader should have enough information to detect the allusion and handle its significance in a book.

Allegory

Usually, allegory is an interesting expression.With the help of Allegory, a writer can advance their good and political point of perspectives. A cautious study of a metaphorical bit of writing can give us an insight into its writer’s psyche concerning how he sees the world and how he wants the world to be.The goal of its utilization is to lecture an ethical exercise.

Assonance

The repetition of vowel sounds that create an internal rhyming within sentences and phrases are called as Assonance. The writers use assonance to add literary value to their work and to catch the attention of the audience.

Idiom

An idiom is a set of articulation or an expression that involves at least two words. Writers and open speakers use idioms liberally. The writer utilizes an idiom to expand their language, make it more extravagant and spicier and help them in passing on indirect implications to their purposeful crowd.

Imagery

Generally, the writers utilize dynamic language to speak to objects, activities, and thoughts so that it offers to our physical faculties.It produces a lively and graphic introduction of a scene that interests to whatever number of the reader’s faculties as would be prudent. It helps the reader’s creative mind to envision the characters and scenes in the art piece.

Simile

It is a comparison of two different things using ‘like’ or’as’. To make a description more vivid, this figure of speech is used predominantly by the poets.

Metaphor

It is a word or a phrase that describes something in a literally untrue way. Metaphors are one of the common poetic devices used in poems and literature.

Hyperbole

It is an exaggerated statement that is not meant to be taken literally by the reader. It is often used for emphasis.

Personification

It is a representation of an object or non-living thing as humans. It is a common literary technique the poets and storytellers use.

Alliteration

Using the same letter and the same sound at the beginning of pronunciation is called Alliteration. It is a literary device used to create a set of words that start with the sound of the same consonants.

Allegory

It is a kind of story that can be used to portray a general message about real-life incidents or events. Typically it deals with an entire novel, book, play, etc. Generally, a writer as a rule realizes that if he adds allegory to his work then it will include different layers of implications. Allegory makes the accounts and characters multidimensional. It helps them make importance large in an angle than they are scholarly methods.

With the help of Allegory, a writer can advance their good and political perspectives. A cautious study of a metaphorical bit of writing can give us an insight into its writer’s psyche concerning how he sees the world and how he wants the world to be.

Irony

It is a statement used to express an opposite meaning instead of aliteral meaning. Verbal, Situational and Dramatic are three different types of irony.

Onomatopoeia

Words that give a vibe of a sound are called Onomatopoeia. Some examples of Onomatopoeia sound include giggle, grunt, sprinkle, drizzle, etc. Just to make the readers feel the action, the writer uses this figure of speech in their sentences.

Oxymoron

Here the expressions are joined with at least two opposing terms.

Symbolism

Symbolism means the utilization of images to signify thoughts and characteristics by giving them representative implications that are different from their exacting sense.With the help of Symbolism, a writer adds twofold degrees of implications to his work. Symbolism in literature expands enthusiasm for readers as they discover a chance to get an insight into the writer’s psyche on how he sees the world and how he considers basic objects and activities, having more extensive effects.

Zoomorphism

Zoomorphism implies allocating an individual, occasion, or divinity with carnal qualities. While then again, anthropomorphism is attributing human characteristics to different objects, creatures, and cruel animals to give an insight into their capacities.

Literary Elements

To develop a literary piece, the writer uses literary elements such as theme, plot, mood, characters, etc. For creating the work of their interest, the literary elements are great tools for the writers.

Theme: Core concept or idea of a story.

Plot: The logical order of events that form a story.

Conflict: A problem in a story. The entire story usually revolves around a conflict.

Protagonist: A lead role in a story. It can be the main character.

Antagonist: It is a character that is in conflict with the main character or a protagonist.

Dialogue: The characters in the story narrate using dialogues.

Conclusion

We hope you are now clear with the language features. You can do language analysis easily if you have good knowledge about the language techniques, structural techniques, literary elements and literary techniques.Learn all the language features discussed in this guide and try to use it when you compose any piece of writing. Knowing the language features is necessary, as it helps to write your homework or literary piece of work as well as to analyze other writer’s work.